How to install kali linux on raspberry pi? (complete guide)

loop-mounting images

# fdisk -l 2020-02-13-raspbian-buster-lite.img
Disk 2020-02-13-raspbian-buster-lite.img: 1,7 GiB, 1849688064 bytes, 3612672 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x738a4d67

Device                               Boot  Start     End Sectors  Size Id Type
2020-02-13-raspbian-buster-lite.img1        8192  532479  524288  256M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
2020-02-13-raspbian-buster-lite.img2      532480 3612671 3080192  1,5G 83 Linux

# mount -o loop,offset=$((8192*512)) 2020-02-13-raspbian-buster-lite.img mountpoint

Ubuntu arm64/AArch64

‘arm64’ is the Debian port name for the 64-bit ARMv8 architecture, referred to as ‘aarch64’ in upstream toolchains (GNU triplet aarch64-linux-gnu), and some other distros.

BCM2837 is the chip used in the Raspberry Pi 3 and in later models of the Raspberry Pi 2 (board revision V1.2). It packages a 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex A53 (ARMv8) CPU with VideoCore IV GPU.

There is a config.txt entry to make the ARM start in 64-mode (otherwise 32-bit mode is used):


(This will fail to boot unless you provide a kernel/uboot compiled for 64-bit mode)

64 bit versions of the linux-raspi2 kernels were introduced in Ubuntu 16.10 (Yakkety Yak).


To set up MultiArch:

sudo dpkg --add-architecture arm64 
sudo apt update

Install the 64 bit kernel:

sudo apt install linux-image-raspi2:arm64

Edit the config.txt to start in 64-bit mode (see above). Reboot.

Install any other packages you want e.g. to run 64-bit Firefox:

sudo apt install firefox:arm64

The generic arm64 linux kernels can also be used with a suitable bootloader. For example, the Xenial hwe-mini.iso, Bionic mini.iso and ubuntu-18.04-server-arm64.iso can be booted with a u-boot-UEFI-grub2 combination. This can be achieved as follows:

How to Install Kali Linux

Download Kali Linux images for Raspberry Pi

Kali Linux images for the ARM architecture are available on this page of the official website.Click on the image name to download it directly, or click on “Torrent” to download the torrent file.

If you don’t know Torrent, it’s a peer-to-peer download protocolYou need to download and install a software to use it (Transmission, Vuze, Deluge, BitTorrent, …).On Ubuntu, for example, Transmission is part of the basic packages already installed.

As you can see, all Raspberry Pi models are now supported, including the Raspberry Pi 4. This is good news for us I suppose it should work on Raspberry Pi 400.

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Create a new SD Card with Etcher

Now that you have the image of Kali Linux, we will create an SD card to install and use it later.

If possible, I recommend installing it on another SD card than the one you use for Raspberry Pi OS, so you don’t have to redo everything if you come back on Raspberry Pi OS (8Gb minimum).If you need more SD cards, you can check my recommended products here.

As usual, we will use Etcher to create our SD card.If you don’t have it yet you can download it from the official website, it’s available for Linux, Windows and macOS and will make your life easier.

Once Etcher installed, start it.Then select your image and your SD card then start the copy.I don’t know exactly why, but Kali Linux took me longer than other distributions to flash (even if the size is almost the same as Raspberry Pi OS Full), probably more compressed than Raspberry Pi OS.

First boot on Kali Linux

Just insert the SD card into your Raspberry Pi and start.Kali Linux will start directly the login screen.No questions or other, insert, start, wait.

There is nothing else to do

Open a session on Kali Linux

Once Kali started, you need to log in:

The default identifiers on Kali Linux are:– login: kali– password: kali

It is strongly recommended changing them quickly.You can change it by opening a terminal and typing the command:

Boot Methods

There are several ways to boot…

RPI firmware loads u-boot, which loads kernel/initramfs

That’s what the Ubuntu images do, and is promising.

# mkimage -A arm64 -O linux -T script -d boot.txt boot.scr
# vmlinuz and initrd must be converted. See or
#   mkimage -A arm64 -T ramdisk -C none -n uInitrd -d initrd.img uInitrd
#   mkimage -A arm -O linux -T kernel -C none -a 0x00008000 -e 0x00008000 -n "Linux kernel" -d vmlinuz uImage
#setenv bootargs earlyprintk console=ttyS0,115200 console=tty1 root=LABEL=writable rw
#fdt addr ${fdt_addr} && fdt get value bootargs /chosen bootargs

This method provides a UEFI Network boot environment with a user GUI. SD Card or USB is not required. Requirements:

  • Post Sept 2020 eeprom/firmware update.
  • iPXE Compiled for arm64-efi.
  • Tiancore EDK II from ?GitHub compiled for RPI4.

  • Debian Testing/Bullseye on Arm64

Tianocore EDK II on RPI4 is used to boot Debian

This method provides a UEFI boot environment on the SD card with a user GUI.

  • Post Sept 2020 eeprom/firmware update.
  • Tiancore EDK II from ?GitHub compiled for RPI4.

  • Debian Testing/Bullseye on Arm64


  • U-boot patches for USB support now exists and appear to be in review process with upstream. (2020-06-16)
      • USB support
      • USB firmware reloader — perhaps only needed for more recent rpi4’s ie 8GB version
    • For USB keyboard support need above and the line «CONFIG_USB_KEYBOARD=y» added to configs/rpi_4_defconfig

Chip is Broadcom BCM2711

Dual boot on Raspberry Pi

Let’s start by a quick reminder about dual boot and why do you need to use it on your Raspberry Pi

What is a dual boot?

Dual boot means that you can use two different operating systems on the same computerMost of the time, we use this for Windows and Linux systems on a PC

On a computer you can have Windows and Linux installed, and you choose which OS you want to use when you start the computer (with a menu asking you each time you boot)This works by having a separate partition (or more) for each operating system and a small tool on the first sector of your hard drive to ask you which partition you want to start

On a Raspberry Pi, we’ll rather use multi-bootBecause there are a lot of distributions you can install on Raspberry Pi (there are 3 or 4 Raspbian versions)But it’s the same process.You install several systems on your SD card and you choose which one you want to start each time

If you want to change to another system, you just need to reboot your Raspberry Pi and select another one in the boot menu

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Why do I need this?

You may need to use multi-boot on a Raspberry Pi if you are using it for different purposesFor example, you can install these three systems on your SD card:

  • Raspbian Lite: for basic services, like a web server, a torrentbox or anything else
  • OSMC: to watch videos (locally or with Netflix/Youtube) and listen to music
  • Lakka or Retropie: to play games sometimes, without losing all your ROMs and data each time you want to play

That’s just an example, a lot of configurations are possible depending on what you want

What do I need to use it?

You don’t need a lot of thingsIn fact, it’s just two or more operating systems that you install on the same SD card

The only thing you should think about is your SD cardMaybe for a basic installation a 8G SD card will be enoughBut think about it, in one year, after adding GitHub downloads on Raspbian, movies and music and OSMC and a ton of ROMs on Retropie, how many space do you need?

So, I recommend starting with the biggest SD card you have, maybe 64G or moreBy doing this you won’t have any space issue laterIf you don’t have big SD cards, check my recommend product page for the best one to buy

Configure CentOS with GNOME

Nice, CentOS is installed and working.But if you are used to Raspbian, you may be lost in the basic usages of your new systemNo worry, I’ll help you in this section

Network settings

Even if you successfully connect to a network, you may have some issuesFor example, I’m connected to the WiFi but I’m unable to use InternetMy DNS server doesn’t seem to be configured

To check your network settings, follow this procedure:

  • Open the Applications menu (top left)
  • Then Go to System Tools and click on Settings
  • Then click on Wi-Fi or Network and check that everything is fineFor the Wi-Fi you can click on the settings wheel to access all the configuration

In my case, everything is fine, but I have always this connection issueBut after disabling IPV6, setting the correct date and time (check the next paragraph), and disconnect/reconnect the WiFi, it was ok

Edit: Before the end of this tutorial, I had to move my Raspberry Pi close to an ethernet cable. The WiFi connection was absolutely not working, disconnected each 30s and could do nothing. Once plugged with a cable, everything works fine

Adjust date and time

After checking my network configuration, I noticed that my clock was not at the good timeAnd that’s probably why nothing worked (HTTPS needs an adjusted time on your computer)

To fix this go back to the System Settings and choose Details > Date & TimeEven if the Date & Time seems auto adjusted with Internet, it’s not working or it’s taking too much time for me

You can disable the “Automatic Date & Time” option and set the Date/Time as you wantI recommend to re-enable to “Automatic Date & Time” option after that, to keep your system at the good time

Install packages

Like on Raspbian, there is a tool to install new packagesYou can find it in the Application Menu > System Tools > SoftwareThe software installation tool on CentOS

Enter the name of a package you want to installSelect it and click “Apply changes” to install itIt may ask you if your trust the packages, and finally your password to confirm the installation

You can also browse the packages categories to find the one you want

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Update your system

To update your system, there is a similar tool in System Tools > Software UpdateSoftware Update tool on CentOS 7

When the window opens, you’ll see all the packages available for updateClick on “Install updates” to install them all

I recommend rebooting your system after the update, to apply all changes


By default, nano or even vim are not installed on CentOSIf you need a text editor in your terminal, you have to install it with the Software manager

Otherwise, you have a text editor available in Applications > Accessories > Text EditorBut you’ll be stuck if you try to open a file where you don’t have the permission


As in many other systems, SSH is not enabled by default on CentOS 7For this one I didn’t find how to do it in the interface so you have to use a command

Open a terminal (Applications > System tools > Terminal) and type this command:

sudo systemctl enable sshd
sudo systemctl start sshd

Python Libraries

If you need some specific Python libraries for Raspberry Pi, it will be a little more complex than on RaspbianBy default they are not installed neither available in the repository

I finally found how to install them, here is what you can do:

  • Create a new file to add the EPEL repository
    sudo nano /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo
  • Paste these lines in the file
    name=Epel rebuild for armhfp
  • Save and exit (CTRL+O, CTRL+X)The EPEL repository is now available
  • Use yum to install the python packagesyum is the package manager on CentOS (like apt or apt-get on Debian systems)
    yum install python34 python34-pip
  • You can now install any Python library as usualFor example:
    pip3.4 install picamera

USB booting

The Raspberry Pi 3 (and Pi 2 v1.2 with the same BCM2837 SoC as the Pi3) is capable of booting from a USB drive. To do this you’ll first need to program USB boot mode (this is unnecessary on the 3B+ as USB booting is on by default). For the original Pi 2, or if you are having problems with USB booting, then you can copy the bootcode.bin file to an SD card and place all other files on a USB drive.

You must have bootloader files (confusingly referred to as the firmware on the Raspberry Pi) from after April 2017. So if necessary .

Edit the cmdline.txt file and change root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 to root=LABEL=writable (or root=LABEL=cloudimg-rootfs for the raspi2 images). If you are using a lot of drives then you may wish to switch to using the UUID of the partition.

If you haven’t already done so, , as Ubuntu’s u-boot script is hard coded for SD card use.

Install a desktop environment on Fedora Minimal

We’ll now see how to install a lightweight Fedora desktop environment.

Choose a good environment

As said in the introduction, the default Gnome Shell was terrible.Even after installed on a Minimal version, I had a bad experience.

So if you really need a graphical interface, I recommend looking for a lightweight one.After a little research and tests, I found that XFCE is good but LXDE is better.

If you like XFCE and already use it somewhere else, that’s fine.But for the step-by-step tutorial, I’ll show you how to install LXDE, now replaced by LXQt.I didn’t successfully install LXQt, whereas LXDE is working directly.

Install LXDE on Fedora Minimal

One powerful feature with DNF is the possibility to use the group install switch to install all dependencies at once.A few groups exist in DNF, including most of the popular desktop environments.

  • To install LXDE you just need to type:
  • Set graphical interface as default with:
  • And that’s it, nothing else to do.You need to reboot to apply changes and start directly on the Desktop:

After the reboot you’ll get the login screen, looking like this:

And once logged, you are on the LXDE desktop and can begin using it normally.

And the desktop looks like this with default options and a few windows open:

You can click on the Fedora menu (bottom left) to start a new app.

Test other desktop environments

For other desktop environments, it’s the same installation process.You just need to find the group name.

  • The command I use is:
  • You’ll get a list like this:
    •   Xfce Desktop (xfce-desktop-environment)
    •   LXDE Desktop (lxde-desktop-environment)
    •   LXQt Desktop (lxqt-desktop-environment)
    •   Cinnamon Desktop (cinnamon-desktop-environment)
    •   MATE Desktop (mate-desktop-environment)
    •   Sugar Desktop Environment (sugar-desktop-environment)
    •   Deepin Desktop (deepin-desktop-environment)
    •   Basic Desktop (basic-desktop-environment)
  • Then use for example: to install it
  • For your information, you can also use the name in brackets with @ but it’s often longer in this case :).
  • Don’t forget to reboot after the installation.

Disable desktop

You can also keep the desktop environment installed, and ask not to start it on boot.To do this, you can use:

You may also like:

  • Top Raspberry Pi HATs to easily add new features
  • Can a Raspberry Pi 4 really Replace your Desktop PC?
  • My book: Master your Raspberry Pi in 30 days

Очередь загрузки.

Загрузка Pi имеет несколько фаз, причем большая часть этого процесса выполняется маленьким CPU, специально отведенным для этой задачи и находящимся внутри графического ядра VideoCore. У SoC-чипа Broadcom есть небольшое количество долговременной памяти, которая получает на обработку код для загрузки девайса. Сначала она использует простой USB-код, чтобы сосчитать файл, который ей «навязывает» USB-аппаратура. Если этот процесс проходит безуспешно, работа этого USB-кода прерывается, после чего за дело берется MMC-аппаратура, которая пытается сосчитать файл с MMC-совместимого девайса. На Pi этим девайсом является SD-карта, а файл (он, кстати, носит название bootcode.bin) должен находиться в файловой системе, совместимой с FAT16 или FAT32. На данном этапе процессор ARM по-прежнему находится «в отключке», поэтому содержимое bootcode.bin выполняется все тем же маленьким CPU графического ядра – у этого кода «мозгов» побольше, он считывает следующий файл (под названием start.elf), который, в свою очередь считывает и интерпретирует config.txt. Он конфигурирует такие вещи, как память, режимы видео/HDMI и кадровые буферы, тестирует GPU (помните «радужный экран»?), а затем принимается за загрузку и конфигурацию ядра Linux (адреса, дерево устройств, скорость передачи данных в UART и т.д.). Лишь после этого запускается процессор ARM, чтобы обработать программный код ядра.


That’s it, you now know two ways of using dual boot on your Raspberry Pi (or multi-boot)Depending on what you prefer and what you want to do, it’s your choice to use NOOBS or BerryBoot

NOOBS seems easier for a beginner and for the main distributionsBerryBoot seems a little more complex but you can install any systems you want, with more configuration featuresAnd for experimented users, you can also try installing VMWare ESXi to run virtual machines on your Raspberry Pi.

If you are interested to test other distributions than Raspbian, check my post about the best operating systems for your Raspberry Pi

This tutorial doesn’t work anymore? Report the issue here, so that I can update it!

Raspberry Pi Resources

Not sure where to start?Understand everything about the Raspberry Pi, stop searching for help all the time, and finally enjoy completing your projects.Watch the Raspberry Pi Bootcamp course nowMaster your Raspberry Pi in 30 daysDon’t want the basic stuff only? If you are looking for the best tips to become an expert on Raspberry Pi, this book is for you. Learn useful Linux skills and practice multiples projects with step-by-step guides.Download the e-bookVIP CommunityIf you just want to hang out with me and show your support, you can also join the Patreon community. I share behind-the-scenes content there and give you early access to my content. You’ll also get a shoutout when you join.More details hereNeed help to build something with Python?Create, understand and improve any Python script for your Raspberry Pi.Learn the essentials, step-by-step, without losing time understanding useless concepts.Get the e-book nowYou can also find all my recommendations for tools and hardware on this page.

This tutorial doesn’t work anymore? Report the issue here, so that I can update it!

What is SSH?

SSH stands for Secure SHell.It’s a cryptographic network protocol that is most used to connect to another computer on a network securely.

In general, SSH will allow you to access the shell (terminal) of your Raspberry Pi from another PC.This solution can be convenient if you want to install things from your main PC (and copy/paste commands) or even essential if you don’t use a screen with your Raspberry Pi. can’t be loaded because JavaScript is disabled: You don’t know everything about SSH on Raspberry Pi (

In the next paragraphs, we will see how to set it up, step by step, starting with the basics, then adding a bit of comfort.

Change password on Raspberry Pi OS with Desktop

If you are on Raspberry Pi OS with Desktop, it should be pretty easy to change the password. I have included photos with the step-by-step guide below to help you with this procedure.By the way, you absolutely need access to a session on Raspberry Pi OS to do this. If you have lost your password, check the last part of this tutorial before getting started below.

Welcome wizard

Before going further, I want to remind you that the welcome wizard on Raspberry Pi OS is a pretty neat tool that allows you to change many things, including the password for the “pi” user.

That’s almost the first question it will ask you:

If you are just installing your system, this is the easiest way to change your password. Follow this wizard, set a password, and configure the basic settings.

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Raspberry Pi Configuration tool

There is a good chance you are here because you changed your password during the first boot, haven’t used your password since as the session opens without a password, and don’t remember what password you set.

No worries, you can change your password easily by following these few steps:

  • Open the main menu in the top left of your screen.
  • Go into Preferences and click on “Raspberry Pi configuration”.
  • A window will appear with many settings you can tweak.Click on “Change password”:
  • Then you can change your password directly:Choose a new password and enter it twice.If you are doing this for security reasons, I highly recommend using a long password (no need for multiple special characters, but long passwords are better).For example, I often use that kind of tool that generates long passwords that are easy to remember.
  • Once done, Raspberry Pi OS will display a success message:

That’s it! You have now changed your password, and can proceed with whatever you were trying to do :).

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You may also like:

  • 25 awesome Raspberry Pi project ideas at home
  • 15 best operating systems for Raspberry Pi (with pictures)
  • My book: Master your Raspberry Pi in 30 days

How to connect to Raspberry Pi with SSH?

From Windows

If you use Microsoft Windows on your main PC, be aware that there is no tool for an SSH connection that is installed by default.That’s why you will have to download and install one, like Putty for example.

Putty is one of the most used software programs to access SSH hosts on Windows, and if you start it will be perfect.

Download the file matching your computer specifications.Depending on the version chosen, install it or not, then launch it.

Putty look like this :

To log in, type the IP address in the “Host Name” field and click on “Open”.If you need help to find the current IP address of Raspberry Pi, feel free to read my article on the subject.

As a reminder, the default SSH login and password are:– Login: pi– Password: raspberry

If you have changed your Raspberry Pi username and/or password, use the same credentials as when you open your session directly on the Raspberry Pi.

If it does not work for now, do not worry, then I’ll explain what to do.

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From Linux or Mac

If you use a Unix-based system, i.e., any Linux distribution or even macOS, you will have to use the “ssh” command to connect from a terminal.

You might need to install it depending on your system, for example on a distribution based on Debian:

The command to connect to your Raspberry Pi will be something like this:

Replace IP by the IP address of your Raspberry Pi.If you need help to find the current IP address of Raspberry Pi, feel free to read my article on the subject.

As a reminder, the default SSH login and password are:– Login: pi– Password: raspberry

If it does not work for now do not worry, I’ll explain what to do now.

Is there documentation available for Raspbian?

Because Raspbian is closely based on Debian, there is an enormous amount of documentation available for Raspbian. Aside from the web site and the wealth of information there, a terrific source of documentation is the recently released The Debian Administrator’s Handbook which is available in hard-copy or as a free download. Note however that the current version of that handbook is based on debian squeeze while the first release of Raspbian is based on Debian wheezy. Therefore there may be differences in some areas.

Any slight differences between Debian and Raspbian or aspects of Raspbian that are unique to the Raspberry Pi hardware will be documented on this web site or on the Raspberry Pi section of the wiki.

Установка сервера OpenVPN

Устанавливаем PiVPN

при установке спросит пароль, потом захочет статический ip (если настраивали ранее, то просто соглашаться), выбираем пользователя, которому настроить VPN соединение  (пользователей можно будет потом добавить из командной строки

потом установщик будет пугать что без автоматических обновлений (unattended upgrades) будет несекьюрно и предложит их включить, нажимаем Yes.

Потом выбираем какой протокол будем использовать UDP или TCP (наш выбор UDP).

Далее вводим номер порта на котором будет слушать VPN сервер (лучше нестандартный).

Далее выбираем использовать ли лучшую защиту (если у нас клиентские версии openvpn от 2.4), нам старье не нужно, поэтому нажимаем Yes.

После этого выбираем скольки битным шифрованием ECDSA шифровать соединение (256 соответствует 3072 бит RSA), выбираем золотую середину 384 между рекомендуемым размером и размером для параноиков.

Далее выбираем внешний белый IP для соединения снаружи или динамический DNS если белого IP у нас нет.

Затем выбираем провайдера DNS для подключаемых клиентов VPN (есть готовый список или можно забить свой), просто не паримся и выбираем Google, он и так о нас всё знает.

Далее на запрос Custom Search Domain отвечаем No.

На этом установка закончена и будет предложено ребутнуть систему.

Можно прописать в файле /etc/openvpn/server.conf версию протокола, добавив 4.

Далее создаем .ovpn файл который включает в себя ключ доступа, и который нужен для vpn клиента:

далее будет запрошено имя пользователя, срок действия сертификата (1080 дней по умолчанию), пароль для ключа, который будет запрашиваться при каждом подключении по VPN (защита на случай если сопрут ключ).

Сгенерированный файл сохраняется в каталоге /home/Пользователь/ovpns.

Перетаскиваем файл конфигурации на устройство с клиентом и настраиваем на роутере форвардинг порта на внутренний ip raspberry.

Программное обеспечение

Raspbian основан на популярном дистрибутиве Linux Debian 10. Это система, используемая на серверах и суперкомпьютерах, которая славится своим стабильным, тщательно протестированным и безопасным программным обеспечением. Для Raspbian использовалась облегченная среда рабочего стола LXDE, созданная специально для менее производительных компьютеров. В нее включена поддержка многих языков, хотя могут встретиться некоторые элементы на английском. Так что для полной конфигурации могут потребоваться его базовые знания.

Raspbian не испугает пользователей, которые ранее не общались с Linux. Система основана на рабочем столе, окнах и управляется с помощью левого и правого щелчка мыши, как и в среде Microsoft Windows. В Raspbian панель задач по умолчанию находится вверху, а раскрывающееся меню находится слева.

В нем размещены предустановленные программы, отсортированные по категориям, включая Libre Office, браузер Chromium с функциями безопасности и блокировки рекламы, инструменты для программирования, простые аксессуары и игры (в том числе упрощенный Minecraft). Программное обеспечение можно установить с помощью «Установка и удаление программного обеспечения» или «Рекомендованного программного обеспечения». В общем, недостатка в простых играх и инструментах, включая GIMP, не ощущается.

Доступен и файловый менеджер, похожий на тот, что использует Windows. Ярлыки можно добавить на рабочий стол или в верхнюю панель. В правом верхнем углу находится панель со значками для настройки сети, устройств Bluetooth, времени и календаря. Более опытные пользователи найдут здесь и терминал, управляемый с помощью текстовых команд.

Для тех, кого не устраивает интерфейс, похожий на Linux, хорошим решением будет установка операционной системы от внешних поставщиков, таких как Windows 10 IoT Core или OSMC. Первый вариант — это предложение для пользователей, привыкших к среде Microsoft, а второй превращает мини-компьютер в домашний мультимедийный центр. Не лишним будет протестировать Ubuntu MATE, LibreELEC, RISC OS или Ichigo RPI, потому что каждое программное обеспечение может «превратить» Распбери в устройство для выполнения совершенно разных задач.

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